Aliases are short pieces of text that represent the title of certain items (Menu items, Articles and Categories) in a machine-friendly format. This format allows only lowercase letters and dashes (-).

Aliases are used by Joomla to make Search Engine Friendly URLs. There are technical limitations to the types of characters that can be included in URLs, so Joomla prevents problems with invalid characters by allowing you to specify an alias.

You can fill in an alias yourself. If you leave the alias field empty, Joomla will automatically create an alias from the Title field of an item when it is saved. This means that if you edit the title of an item, but you leave the old alias in its field, the alias (and the URL that is created from it) will not change. Empty the alias field if you want generate a new alias.

Reference: http://docs.joomla.org/Glossary

Modules are lightweight and flexible extensions used for page rendering. These modules are often “boxes” arranged around a component on a typical page. A well-known example is the login module. Modules are assigned per menu item, so you can decide to show or hide (for example) the login module depending on which page (menu item) the user is currently on. Some modules are linked to components: the “latest news” module, for example, links to the content component (com_content) and displays links to the newest content items. However, modules do not need to be linked to components; they don't even need to be linked to anything and can be just static HTML or text.

Modules are managed in the Joomla! Administrator view by the Module Manager.

Joomla default modules:

  • Archived Articles?
  • Articles – Newsflash
  • Articles – Related Articles
  • Articles – Categories
  • Articles Category
  • Banners?
  • Breadcrumbs
  • Custom HTML
  • Random Image
  • Search?
  • Statistics
  • Syndication Feeds
  • Feed Display
  • Footer?
  • Language Switcher
  • Latest News
  • Latest Users
  • Login?
  • Menu?
  • Most Read Content
  • Weblinks
  • Who’s Online
  • Wrapper

Reference: http://docs.joomla.org/Glossary

The template used to specify the layout of the administrator back end of a Joomla site. The Back-end Template controls the way your website's administrative tasks are presented for controlling management functions by a Joomla! Administrator. These would include common tasks such as: user, menu, article, category, module, component, plugin and template management.

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